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Among them, lead acid battery is the largest number. The price of lead-acid batteries is the lowest, and the most commonly used, China is the world's largest producer of lead-acid batteries. The composition containing pollution is less and the recoverability is good. The disadvantage is small volume. In other words, for the same capacity, the battery is both heavy and bulky. The current lead-acid battery is basically developed from the floating charge type battery. Floating rechargeable battery is not suitable for fast charging and large current discharge, although the technical personnel spent a lot of effort to carry out fruitful improvements, can enter the practical, but its life is still very not ideal.
Colloidal battery belongs to a development of lead-acid battery classification, the simplest way is to add a gelling agent in sulfuric acid, so that sulfuric acid electrohydraulic into a colloidal state. Electro-hydraulic colloidal batteries are often called colloidal batteries. Broadly speaking, the difference between a colloidal battery and a conventional lead-acid battery is not just that the electrohydraulic is gelled.
For example, non-solidified water-based colloid belongs to colloidal battery from the perspective of electrochemical classification structure and characteristics. In addition, polymer materials attached in the grid, commonly known as ceramic grid, can also be regarded as the application characteristics of colloidal batteries. Recently, some laboratories have added a targeted coupling agent to the plate formula, which has greatly improved the reaction utilization rate of the plate active substance. According to the non-public data, it can reach the specific energy level of 70Wh /kg by weight. These are the current industrial practice and the application examples of the colloidal battery to be industrialized.
The differences between colloidal batteries and conventional lead-acid batteries have been further developed from the initial understanding of electrolyte gelling to the study of electrochemical properties of electrolyte infrastructure, as well as the application in grids and active substances. Its most important characteristic for: use a smaller industrial cost, along the 150 - year history of the lead-acid battery industry way to create more high-quality batteries, its flat discharge curve, inflection point, high specific energy, especially more than 20% higher power than conventional lead-acid batteries, life in general, about twice the length of a conventional lead-acid battery, high temperature and low temperature properties is much better.
The specific capacity of lithium-ion batteries is better than that of nickel metal hydride batteries. For lead-acid batteries of the same capacity, lithium-ion batteries weigh as much as a laptop computer, so that the elderly, the weak, and children can use them. It can also last longer than nickel-metal hydride batteries. The current mobile phone battery is basically the use of this battery. The internal resistance of the lithium ion battery is relatively large, and the power of the car will be felt when the battery is about to be completely discharged on the electric bicycle. The more important problem of lithium-ion battery is that the battery will explode in the state of overcharge and overdischarge. Mobile phone batteries are all monomer batteries, and the use of good protection circuit can basically eliminate the problem of battery explosion. In the use of electric bicycles, it is necessary to use serial battery packs, and the protection circuit of serial battery packs is far more complex than the protection circuit of single batteries, and the material cost is also greatly increased. Currently, the cost of a good lithium-ion battery protection circuit is close to the price of the battery itself. Polymer lithium-ion batteries have lower explosion lethality than lithium-ion batteries, but there is also the possibility of explosion and combustion. This is the same problem that lithium-ion batteries have to solve.