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Application scenarios and future development of lithium ion batteries

Application scenarios and future development of lithium ion batteries


Energy storage technology includes four types: physical energy storage (pumped storage, compressed air storage, flywheel energy storage, seawater energy storage, superconducting energy storage), chemical energy storage (hydrogen storage, carbon storage), electrochemical energy storage (battery energy storage, ultracapacitor energy storage) and heat storage and cold storage. Among all kinds of energy storage technologies, battery energy storage is the fastest developing and most concerned energy storage technology direction. By the end of 2017, a total of 1210.3MW of global battery energy storage projects had been put into operation, the cumulative scale of which entered the GW era for the first time.

I. Application scenarios of energy storage batteries

(1) Connect renewable energy to the grid

The gap and variability of renewable energy generation, as well as the continuous improvement of permeability, pose a severe challenge to the normal operation and dispatch of the existing power grid system. In recent years, in order to utilize more renewable energy as much as possible and improve the reliability and efficiency of power grid operation, various energy storage technology research and engineering demonstration projects have been rapidly developed. Large-capacity battery energy storage technology is applied to wind power and photovoltaic power generation, which can smooth the fluctuation of power output, reduce its impact on the power system, improve the power station's capacity of tracking and planning output, and provide standby energy for the construction and operation of renewable energy power stations.

(2) Power grid auxiliary services

Power grid auxiliary services can be divided into capacitive and power services. The capacitive services, such as power grid peak regulation, load following and black start, need to reach a certain volume of energy storage, generally between 1 and 500MW, and the discharge time is more than 1 hour. Power services such as FM assist and voltage support require the battery to have a large power or voltage output for a short period of time (minute level). Energy storage battery technology can improve the frequency modulation capacity of the power grid, which can reduce the loss of the traditional frequency modulation power caused by frequent switching. In terms of improving the peak load regulation capacity of the power grid, the energy storage system can respond to dispatching instructions in a timely and reliable manner according to the changes of power supply and load and change its output level according to the instructions.

(3) Power transmission and distribution

Energy storage battery systems can improve power distribution quality and reliability. When the distribution network fails, it can be used as a backup power supply for continuous power supply to users. In terms of improving power quality, the power quality of the distribution network is controlled as a system controllable power source to eliminate problems such as voltage sag and harmonics, reduce the input of trunk network expansion and save money for capacity expansion.

(4) Distributed and micro-grid

The microgrid system is required to be equipped with an energy storage device, which shall be able to do the following: 1) provide short-term uninterrupted power supply when off-grid and the distributed power supply is unable to provide power; 2) It can meet the demand of micro grid peak regulation; 3) can improve the power quality of micro grid; 4) Can complete the black start of microgrid system; 5) Balance the output of intermittent and fluctuating power supply and effectively control the electrical load and thermal load. The energy storage battery system has the characteristics of dynamic energy absorption and timely release. As a necessary energy buffer link of the micro grid, it can improve the power quality, stabilize the network operation, optimize the system configuration, and ensure the safe and stable operation of the micro grid.

(5) the user side

User-side energy storage includes industrial and commercial peak clipping and valley filling and demand-side response. Battery combined with power electronics technology can provide users with reliable power supply and improve power quality; And the difference between peak and valley electricity prices is used to save expenses for users.

(6) Electric vehicle VEG mode energy supply system

The development of the new energy vehicle industry must be coordinated with the energy storage industry. In order to meet the demand for safe and quick charging of electric vehicles in the future, it is necessary to establish a distributed energy station similar to a gas station. The energy station is equipped with low-cost and long-life megawatt energy storage batteries, which can charge and store the electricity from the grid and then charge the electric vehicles quickly. At the same time, the power station can also interact with the grid for power peak regulation or frequency modulation.

Two, the type of energy storage battery

The complexity of energy storage application scenarios determines the diversified development direction of energy storage battery technology. It will be the main theme of the energy storage market to select the appropriate energy storage battery technology for specific scenarios in a long time in the future. The future research and development direction of new energy storage battery technology should also follow this rule, and magnify its advantages for specific scenarios to obtain the possibility of future commercial application.

There are many characteristic parameters to characterize the performance of the energy storage battery, among which the most important are the power characteristic and capacity characteristic of the battery. Therefore, according to different requirements of battery power capacity ratio (W: Wh, referred to as C) in different energy storage application scenarios, energy storage batteries can be roughly divided into three types: capacity type (0.5C), energy type (& Asymp; 1C) and power type (2C). The higher the ratio, the higher the power density of the battery, but the lower the capacity density, the higher the price per capacity.

For example, power peak regulation, off-grid photovoltaic energy storage or peak-valley differential energy storage on the user side generally require the energy storage battery to continue charging or discharging for more than two hours, so it is suitable for the application of capacity-type batteries; For the energy storage scenario of power frequency modulation or smooth fluctuation of renewable energy, the energy storage battery should be charged and discharged rapidly in the period from second level to minute level, so it is more suitable for the application of power type battery; In some applications where both frequency modulation and peak modulation are required, the energy type battery is more suitable. Of course, the power type and capacity type battery can also be used together in this scenario.

Among all kinds of energy storage batteries at present, liquid flow battery and lithium slurry battery belong to typical capacity type battery, while lithium titanate battery in lithium ion battery is a kind of typical power type battery, which is determined by the essential properties of the above batteries and is difficult to change. Other types of batteries can be modified to some extent by changing battery materials and processes to suit different energy storage applications.

III. Technical connotation of energy storage battery

In the future, the large-capacity battery and the high-power battery for the peak-regulated energy storage and the frequency-regulated energy storage still need the technological innovation breakthrough. Energy storage battery technology includes six aspects: material technology, structure technology, manufacturing technology, application technology, repair technology and recycling technology.

(1) Material technology

The core material of the battery includes the cathode material, the cathode material and the electrolyte material, and the auxiliary materials also include the diaphragm, the fluid collector and the battery housing material. In the past three decades, the research and development of lithium-ion battery materials has focused on improving the energy density, cycle life and safety performance of materials, and developing low-cost materials preparation technologies. The research and development of flow battery materials focuses on the modification of electrolyte and diaphragm materials. In 2006, the selection and modification of carbon material additives in the lead paste was started in the field of lead acid battery to develop long life lead carbon batteries for energy storage.

Throughout the history of energy storage battery research, material advances have led to significant improvements in battery performance, but the progress of material innovation that makes sense has been slow. In particular, the material properties reported in laboratory papers are not the same as the performance of actual batteries, and there is often a considerable gap between the two. So battery materials, while critical, are not the whole story of battery technology. At present, the establishment of technical engineering projects in the field of energy storage attaches too much importance to the research work of laboratory material papers and ignores the connection with practical application scenarios, resulting in a large disconnect between scientific research work and the needs of industrial development, which should be paid enough attention to.


(2) Structural technology

Not all batteries can be called energy storage batteries, system power in the magnitude of 1KW above, can be called energy storage batteries; The system power is 1MW. The battery used in the energy storage power station is called the electric energy storage battery.

The energy storage battery structure technology includes the internal structure technology and external system structure technology of the battery. Different from the small battery used in consumer electronic products, the structure of the energy storage battery is more complex, with the requirements of series and parallel system and the characteristics of high power and large capacity.

Existing energy storage and power lithium ion battery is made up of mobile phone batteries and other small lithium-ion battery development, both cylindrical and square cells, from the point of internal structure, internal use all types of lithium ion battery are adhesive film electrode structure, this to the design of the energy storage performance consistency with lithium ion batteries has brought the fundamental structural problems. In addition, when the battery is scrapped and recycled, all the bonded electrodes can only be crushed, and the internal broken aluminum foil, copper foil materials and Co, Li elements must be recycled by metallurgical means, leading to high recovery cost and the risk of acid and alkali waste liquid pollution treatment. Therefore, it is necessary for the structural design of lithium ion batteries for energy storage to learn from the structural ideas of large batteries, such as lead-acid batteries and liquid flow batteries, so as to transform the small and rich ones that are prone to problems into safe and reliable ones, so as to be suitable for energy storage application scenarios with large current and large power.

In the future, the research and development of large energy storage batteries should consider the fusion design of the internal and external structures of the batteries. In terms of power storage, the application client is concerned about the system cost, system efficiency, system life and system safety, but does not care about the energy density or cycle life of the single battery. Therefore, as the battery technology research and development end, we should take the initiative to consider the innovative integration of the internal unit and the external structure of the system, and reduce the cost and safety pressure of the external system through the subversive design of the internal structure. This will be an important direction for the future research of energy storage battery structure technology.

(3) Manufacturing technology

The manufacturing technology of energy storage battery is closely related to the design of battery structure. The series and parallel characteristics of the energy storage battery system require that the battery must have good consistency, so the intelligent control of the production process is particularly important. How to manufacture high performance energy storage battery with low cost equipment and process? This is a contradiction problem, and is also the key problem in the development of energy storage battery manufacturing technology.

The existing production process of lithium-ion battery is a transition from the tape manufacturing process in the past to meet the precision requirements of the battery film coated electrode sheet. In addition, the various battery product models and the lack of specifications lead to the low material utilization rate, low product qualification rate, low equipment operation rate and high manufacturing cost in the battery production process. Future, therefore, to combine the structure of the battery reverse design, fundamentally reduces the complexity of the energy storage battery production technology and production equipment parameters requirements, at the same time promote the large data, the Internet of things technology and energy storage battery production equipment and the integration development of manufacturing technology, through the intelligent manufacturing upgrade, standardize manufacturing process, strict control of product quality, improve the efficiency of product final inspection, Reduce the manufacturing cost of energy storage batteries.

(4) Application technology

Energy storage battery application technology refers to BMS, PCS and EMS. BMS(Battery Management System) is the link between the battery body and the application end, the important object is the secondary battery, the purpose is to improve the utilization rate of the battery, prevent the battery from over-charging and over-discharging. PCS(Battery Energy Storage System Energy Control Device) is a system that connects the battery pack with the grid and stores the grid energy into the battery pack or returns the battery energy back to the grid. EMS(Energy Management System) is the general name of modern power grid dispatching automation system, including: computer, operating system and EMS support system, data acquisition and monitoring, automatic power generation control and planning, network application analysis.

At present, the landing of many energy storage demonstration projects is directly connected by battery production suppliers and power grid companies, and there is a lack of responsibility identification standards and application technical standards, which brings difficult problems to the system operation and possible accident identification in the later stage. In the future, there should be an independent application service provider of energy storage battery system with application technology development as the core, which is responsible for the design, planning, leasing, operation and scrap recycling of the energy storage system, and cooperate with insurance companies to promise to be responsible for the service life and operation safety of the system.

(5) Repair technology

The repair technology of energy storage battery includes electric repair technology of battery system and on - line regeneration technology. The former includes environmental corrosion repair, electrical insulation aging detection, electrical connection detection, temperature and pressure sensing maintenance and battery inspection technology, and the latter is a new technical direction for new energy storage lithium ion batteries. Theoretically speaking, in addition to the disorder of the internal lattice of the battery active particles and the corrosion and shedding of the collector, other interface problems of the energy-stored lithium ion battery may be maintained and extended by the way of online regeneration. When the battery is used for a period of time, the battery performance can be reactivated by means of in-situ repair of SEI film on the surface of anode and cathode materials, supplement and replacement of electrolyte, etc., so as to extend the actual calendar service life of the energy stored lithium ion battery. For example, the thick electrode shape of a lithium-slurry battery gives it the possibility of in-line regeneration during its lifetime.

(6) Recycling technology

Any battery has a lifespan. At present, there are hundreds of millions of small batteries in domestic use, and most of them are small in size and have low use value of waste batteries. In addition, most of them are treated as household waste, which has potential pollution hazards. Scrap energy storage batteries cannot be discarded in the environment like small consumer batteries, so they must be recycled.

The recycling technology of the energy storage battery includes the replacement and treatment technology of the waste battery, the safety transportation technology, the recycling and treatment technology and the resource reuse technology. At present, the recycling technology of lead-acid batteries is relatively mature, but there is a risk of pollution in the non-standard recycling process. Lithium ion battery recycling processes and technology is not yet mature, combined with material and structure technology, development of a new type of energy storage battery convenient recycling technology, innovation, improvement in product design, from the production of battery recycling link to think ahead, to achieve the energy storage resources sustainable development of lithium ion battery industry, it has important strategic significance.

IV. Development Goals of Energy Storage Battery Technology

Energy storage in the spring has come, but industry coming summer is far from booming, business or demonstration application, all kinds of energy storage technology has showed the advantages of energy storage in the application, also gradually exposed some problems, especially the battery energy storage technology, low cost, long life, high safety distance, easy to recycle development goal still has a long way to go, to innovation and breakthrough.

(1) low cost

In the narrow sense, the cost of the energy storage battery only includes the primary (purchase) cost, while in the broad sense, the cost of the energy storage battery also includes the secondary (use) cost and the tertiary (recovery) cost.

Among them, the primary cost includes the material cost of the battery and the manufacturing cost. In the case of limited space for material cost reduction, it will be an important cost reduction direction for new energy storage batteries to simplify battery production process and reduce manufacturing cost and labor cost by subverting the design of battery structure technology.

Secondary costs are closely related to battery life. It is necessary to combine material technology and structure technology to develop new repair and regeneration technology, improve the service life of batteries, and reduce the KWH cost of capacity-type batteries and the frequency cost of power-type batteries.

The tertiary cost refers to the recovery cost of the battery. At present, in order to fully meet the requirements of environmental protection standards, the cost of the recycling and regeneration of energy storage batteries is still very high. It is necessary to have innovative ideas of recycling and regeneration to reduce the cost of the battery three times.

Energy storage battery technology cost reduction can be divided into the following four target phases. Current goals: to develop the technology and market for non-peak modulated energy storage batteries, such as FM and mobile energy storage batteries; Short-term (5-10 years) goals: cost per kilowatt hour below the peak-valley price difference; Medium-term (10-20 years) goals: lower than the cost of thermal power peak regulation and dispatching; Long-term (20-30 years) goal: to lower the cost per kilowatt hour of solar power generation in the same period.

Battery energy storage assisted AGC frequency modulation will be developed prior to peak regulated energy storage. In the future, only when the application cost of energy storage batteries is lower than the peak regulation cost of thermal power, can the energy storage battery system be developed in scale as an important supplement and incorporated into the peak regulation system of power grid.

(2) long lifetime

Generally speaking, with regard to small consumer batteries (such as mobile phone batteries), the service life of 3 to 5 years is sufficient to meet the life requirements of electronic products, but it is hoped that the battery will have a longer stand-by time after a single charge, so there is a direct demand for higher energy density of batteries. However, as for electric energy storage batteries, they basically require a calendar service life of more than ten or even twenty years. Therefore, it is particularly important to improve the calendar life of energy storage batteries.

Battery cycle life is the basis of the calendar life, but is not equivalent to the actual calendar life of the battery. Because from the thermodynamic point of view, the battery system is a highly non-equilibrium chemical system, in the long cycle use years, there are irreversible chemical changes in the body phase and interface, resulting in the increase of the internal resistance of the battery and capacity attenuation. At present, there is no appropriate accelerated aging test standard that can correspond to the actual calendar decay variation of the battery. In the future, in addition to establishing relevant test standards, innovative online repair and regeneration technologies should be developed to improve the calendar service life of energy storage batteries and meet the requirements of actual energy storage conditions.

(3) the high safety

The safety of energy storage batteries is very important. Relatively speaking, water batteries, such as liquid flow batteries and lead-acid batteries, have good safety and can meet the safety requirements of energy storage power stations. However, the charging cut-off voltage of batteries should be strictly controlled to prevent hydrogen evolution explosion after overvoltage electrolysis of aqueous solution. The safety problem of organic lithium ion battery is more prominent. At present, it is generally at the level of safety pass line, and it needs technical breakthrough. Solid-state batteries, which do not contain flammable electrolytes, have the highest safety, and may be first used in some special scenarios with high safety requirements after mass production in the future. Of course, solid-state batteries have considerable hurdles to overcome in terms of cost savings and longevity for large-scale use in power storage. In addition, solid-state battery recycling is a major problem.

The safety prevention technology to prevent the battery (internal or external) short circuit and the emergency maintenance technology after the battery short circuit are the important direction of the development of energy storage battery safety technology. It is far from enough to protect the Li-ion battery through external fire extinguishing devices. In the future, disruptive battery structure technology and safety maintenance technology must be developed to completely solve the battery safety problems from inside the battery, so as to ensure the safe transportation of the battery and the safe operation of the energy storage power station.

(4) easy to recycle

The recycling of resources will be the biggest challenge for the future large-scale application of energy storage batteries. There are three basic requirements for energy storage batteries to achieve the goal of easy recycling: 1. The battery recycling process conforms to safety and environmental protection standards; 2, rare and noble metal elements to achieve close to 100% recycling; 3, the battery has a certain recovery residual value.

The current demonstration energy storage lithium-ion battery system basically does not take into account the recycling process after the battery is scrapped in the future. To make matters worse, there is a widespread misconception in the battery industry that scrapped lithium-ion batteries are rich in valuable precious metals, so there is no need to worry about recycling.

The actual situation that the author has learned is that there is a serious conflict and contradiction between the value of discarded batteries and environmental protection. The material system selection and battery structure design of existing energy storage lithium ion batteries make it very difficult to fully meet the requirements of environmental protection and valuable recycling and treatment work. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out detailed pollution analysis and environmental protection assessment of the whole industry chain of energy storage batteries, and guide the environmental protection development direction of energy storage battery technology innovation, so as to promote the healthy and sustainable development of the industry.

New energy vehicle powered lithium battery technology, hydrogen fuel powered battery or graphene battery which is more promising?

Threats and LARGE | hits: 43 times | May 12, 2021

Last year, the global ban on fuel vehicles was announced, which made people realize that the era of new energy vehicles is coming. Why have pure electric vehicles, plug-in hybrids, fuel-powered cell vehicles and so on become the main theme of the future in just a few years? On the one hand, the global strategy, policy support, on the other hand is power and continuous increase of lithium-ion battery technology, longer life, shorter charging time, direct users about commuting requirements, to make the new energy vehicles came to our side, will replace traditional fuel cars in the future, is closely connected with our daily travel. So there is what people say: the development of new energy vehicles is the development of battery technology.

Lead-acid battery

Lead-acid batteries were first used in pure electric vehicles. Lead and its oxides were made as electrode materials, and sulfuric acid solution was used as electrolyte. This is the power source of most electric bicycles now, and low cost is its biggest advantage. However, because of the low energy density of lead-acid batteries, which bring about problems such as large volume and small capacity, they cannot meet the self-weight control of a car, the consumption of driving force, and even the service life of more than 10,000 kilometers per year, so they cannot be used in mass production cars on a large scale, and are eventually eliminated by automobile manufacturers.

Why the rapid rise of new energy vehicles? Power lithium battery technology development analysis

Sealed lead-acid battery pack

Nimh batteries

Nickel metal hydride batteries and is very close to our daily life, from the early with sound heard now common rechargeable toothbrush and other small appliances, is extremely nickel metal hydride compounds, negative extremely metal hydride, its energy density, charge and discharge times than lead-acid battery has a lot of ascension, and electrolyte nonflammable, safety guaranteed, manufacturing processes mature, BYD was the world's second-largest maker of nickel-metal hydride batteries before it built cars.

Why the rapid rise of new energy vehicles? Power lithium battery technology development analysis


Nickel-metal hydride battery pack

However, because the nickel-metal hydride battery charging efficiency is general, there is a charging memory effect, the working voltage is low (can not use high pressure fast charging), is not suitable for a single power source of the car, suitable for auxiliary engine work. This best should belong to Toyota, the hybrid system USES atkinson engine + nimh battery pack, the atkinson engine itself has the middle speed range and efficient advantages, but also has the weak low speed and high speed, and nimh batteries can be solved just started with a great addition to the lack of motivation at a high speed.

Why the rapid rise of new energy vehicles? Power lithium battery technology development analysis

Why the rapid rise of new energy vehicles? Power lithium battery technology development analysis

After the lithium ion battery is widely used, the nickel metal hydride battery also has the trend to be completely replaced in the automobile. For example, Toyota's new generation hybrid system adopts the combination of more efficient engine + lithium ion battery. Compared with lithium-ion batteries, nickel-metal hydride batteries do not have advantages in capacity, cycle charging life and environmental protection. The cost advantage is weakened under the vigorous development of lithium-ion batteries, which is the reason why nickel-metal hydride batteries are gradually withdrawn from the automotive field.

Lithium-ion battery

Lithium ion battery is the mainstream choice of new energy vehicles at the present stage. Lithium compounds (lithium manganese acid, lithium iron phosphate, etc.) are used as electrode material, and graphite is used as anode material. Its advantages are high energy density, small size, light weight and high charging efficiency. The important factor that determines the type or performance of lithium-ion batteries lies in the materials of the battery poles, among which the material of the positive electrode is the key at this stage, such as the mainstream lithium iron phosphate, lithium cobalt oxide in ternary materials, nickel cobalt manganese and so on. There are differences in capacity, cost, low temperature charge and discharge, safety and other dimensions.

Why the rapid rise of new energy vehicles? Power lithium battery technology development analysis

General Motors Group Lithium Ion Battery Pack

But cold temperatures are a natural enemy for all lithium-ion batteries of any type. Although there are certain differences in the optimal operating temperature of different types of lithium-ion batteries, the activity of lithium ions decreases when the temperature is lower than the optimal range, which has a great impact on the range of battery life, which is also reflected in our previous tests: Electric vehicles equipped with lithium-ion battery packs can only reach more than 60% of the theoretical range in winter in northern China, or about 70% at most.

Why the rapid rise of new energy vehicles? Power lithium battery technology development analysis

Tengse EV400 extreme range test results

The negative impact of low temperature from the battery itself is not very good solution, so many car makers to find a way to give battery heating, the new temperature control system for power lithium batteries alone, the vast majority of this approach brand models have a certain ease use, but the actual effect is not good to solve the problem, because there are some power consumption for the temperature control system of ev, More than the loss of low temperature.

Why the rapid rise of new energy vehicles? Power lithium battery technology development analysis

Emgrand EV450 is equipped with version 2.0 of ITCS battery intelligent temperature control management system

In this regard, it is expected that GM will cooperate with South Korea's LG Group to purchase products that can be equipped with multiple temperature control components directly inside the battery pack, not only to heat the battery as it does now, but also to raise the temperature of the battery in cold weather. The technology is expected to be used in GM's next round of pure and plug-in hybrid cars, replacing the current Hitachi battery packs.

Hydrogen fuel powered cells

You know what happens when you burn H2+O2, so hydrogen is an ideal source of clean energy. In the case of hydrogen itself, the energy released by combustion, its performance at low temperatures and, most importantly, the efficiency of hydrogenation, which can travel more than 600 kilometers in just five minutes and has room to improve, are far better than existing lithium-ion batteries.

Why the rapid rise of new energy vehicles? Power lithium battery technology development analysis

Why the rapid rise of new energy vehicles? Power lithium battery technology development analysis

Regarding the investment of hydrogen fuel-powered cell vehicles, Japanese and South Korean car companies have long started the research, and now they have put into their respective markets on a small scale. For example, the author's test drive of Hyundai Nexo hydrogen fuel-powered cell car before the Spring Festival has been largely used in the Pyeongchang Winter Olympics and marketed.

Why the rapid rise of new energy vehicles? Power lithium battery technology development analysis

Hyundai Nexo hydrogen fuel-powered cell car

And hydrogen is such a good source of energy, why not promote? Because it's just too difficult to get hydrogen with the current technology. You've all learned that electrolyzing water makes hydrogen, but using electricity to electrolyze water and then burn hydrogen to turn it into water doesn't take as much power and loss as charging a lithium-ion battery, which is expensive. The cost and process are more appropriate to extract from oil and natural gas, but the amount is not large, so fuel powered cell vehicles only hear its name, difficult to promote.

Why the rapid rise of new energy vehicles? Power lithium battery technology development analysis

Graphene cell

The most reliable and most discussed lithium battery for new energy vehicles in the future is graphene battery. Some professional interpretation translation is: There are two ways to use this material combined with lithium-ion battery. One is to use graphene composite material as the conductive agent of lithium-ion battery; the other is to use it as the negative electrode directly. The effect is to increase the activity of lithium-ion battery, so as to improve the range and charging speed of electric vehicles.

Why the rapid rise of new energy vehicles? Power lithium battery technology development analysis

Graphene-carbonized sponge lithium oxygen battery

Graphene batteries can effectively solve the shortcomings of lithium-ion batteries, and the product characteristics are directly linked to the use of new energy vehicle users. This material is really big benefits, and South Korea's samsung has announced mastered the technique, but the cost is a big bottleneck, graphene access is not too easy, early is a material used in space, when, by what way to reduce costs, will be a big problem to the high quality products are flying off the shelves, None of the automakers has announced plans to do anything about it.

Why the rapid rise of new energy vehicles? Power lithium battery technology development analysis

Graphene lithium-ion battery rendering

To put it simply, pure electric vehicles work by charging electricity directly, while hydrogen fuel-powered cell vehicles burn H2+O2 into (chemical reaction) electric energy and water, which is equivalent to burning hydrogen to generate electricity. Both types of batteries are also zero-emission. The lithium-ion battery of electric vehicles has smaller capacity density, poor low-temperature activity, which affects its range and slow charging speed. Hydrogen fuel power battery does not exist at all, and its working efficiency is much higher, which is the reason why hydrogen is called high-quality energy.

Solid state lithium ion batteries

Solid state lithium ion battery as the name suggests is no longer use liquid electrolyte, using solid electrolyte, the ability of the density than now the mainstream of the lithium ion battery, which means that the type of pure electric vehicles, achieve energy-saving petrol car range even higher, and charging efficiency compared to the present stage also has a qualitative leap, is equipped with solid state battery electric vehicles, The most ideal charging speed can reach an additional 800 kilometers per minute, which can be said to be the best core component of new energy vehicles.

Why the rapid rise of new energy vehicles? Power lithium battery technology development analysis

Overseas energy and technology companies, as well as battery makers such as Panasonic, are now developing solid-state batteries. The only three major Japanese automakers involved in this field are Toyota, Honda and Nissan, which have been helped by the Japanese government. The parties already working on solid-state batteries are expected to see breakthroughs in cost, energy density and manufacturing by 2020. It is still a long way from 2030 before the results of this research and development can be widely used in new energy vehicles, which is why the automakers didn't mention solid-state batteries when they announced their strategies for a global ban on fuel vehicles by 2025.


Five, the conclusion

Renewable energy + energy storage is the inevitable choice for the development of new energy, and the complexity of energy storage application scenarios determines the diversified development direction of energy storage battery technology. In the future, the large-capacity battery and the high-power battery for the peak-regulated energy storage and the frequency-regulated energy storage still need the technological innovation breakthrough. Energy storage battery includes six technical connotations: material technology, structure technology, manufacturing technology, application technology, repair technology and recycling technology. Among them, battery materials are the foundation, but not the whole research of energy storage battery technology. It is suggested that the basic exploration projects should focus on the research of new materials in the future, while the technical engineering projects should pay attention to the breakthrough of other non-material technologies. Based on the relevant experience of the existing commercial and demonstration energy storage power stations, the overall goal of low cost, long life, high safety and easy recovery should be centered. We will develop various types of capacity-type peak-valley energy storage batteries, power-type frequency-modulated energy storage batteries and energy-type composite energy storage batteries, and cooperate with other types of energy storage technologies to support the rapid development of the energy storage industry.

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